Think of a refrigerator that has multiple shelves that can be used for storing various items. These shelves help you organize the grocery items by shape, size, type, etc. The same concept applies to a filesystem, which is the embodiment of a method of storing and organizing arbitrary collections of data in a human-usable form.
Different Types of Filesystems Supported by Linux:
- Conventional disk filesystems: ext2, ext3, ext4, XFS, Btrfs, JFS,NTFS, etc.
- Flash storage filesystems: ubifs, JFFS2, YAFFS, etc.
- Database filesystems
- Special purpose filesystems: procfs, sysfs, tmpfs, debugfs, etc.
All Linux filesystem names are case-sensitive, so /boot, /Boot, and /BOOT represent three different directories (or folders). Many distributions distinguish between core utilities needed for proper system operation and other programs, and place the latter in directories under /usr (think “user“). To get a sense for how the other programs are organized, find the /usr directory in the diagram above and compare the subdirectories with those that exist directly under the system root directory (/).
Partitions and Filesystems
A partition is a logical part of the disk, whereas a filesystem is a method of storing/finding files on a hard disk (usually in a partition). By way of analogy, you can think of filesystems as being like family trees that show descendants and their relationships, while the partitions are like different families (each of which has its own tree).
A comparison between filesystems in Windows and Linux is given in the following table:
|Base Folder where OS is stored||C drive||/|